Posts Tagged ‘Joseph Hooker’

Darwin Driven by Lost Letter

The letter from Alfred Russel Wallace in June 1858 stands as the most motivating letters Charles Darwin was ever to receive. Wallace’s letter forced Darwin to finish what was soon to be known as The Origin of Species−a work that had been over 20 years in-the-making, at the time. Darwin was shaken to the core.

In this infamous letter, apparently, Wallace had asked Darwin to review an accompanying paper on entitled “On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type.” Since they had been previously corresponding, Wallace thought Darwin might endorse the paper before sending to Charles Lyell. The letter has since been lost. Continue Reading

Nature, the Journal Explains

 

Charles Darwin simply presented an argument in The Origin of Species for evolution. Darwin called it “one long argument”.

Even critical of his own work, in a letter to H. Falconer in October 1862, Darwin wrote, “I look at it as absolutely certain that very much in the Origin will be proved to be rubbish; but I expect and hope that the framework will stand.”

To demonstrate that Darwin’s framework has stood the test of time, in 2008 the journal Nature, launched the following challenge to evolutionists – “Evolution is a scientific fact, and every organization whose research depends on it should explain why… Between now and the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth on 12 February 2009, every science academy and society with a stake in the credibility of evolution should summarize evidence for it on their website and take every opportunity to promote it.”

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Westminster Review

Charles Darwin’s notoriety long preceded the publication of The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in November 1859. The Darwin family legacy has been likened to the Kennedy legacy in the twentieth century.

The Darwin legacy sold the book. No publicity was needed. All 1,250 printed copies were sold on the first day. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was an immediate success, the Harry Potter of the nineteenth century, and sequel to the widely popular Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.

In the afternoons, Prince Albert was known for reading Vestiges aloud to Queen Victoria. The English writer of Vestiges, Robert Chambers (1802–1871) goal was to inspire popular interest in evolution—a Discovery Channel forerunner.

Darwin, however, received wide spread of publicity, with the Westminster Review leading the publicity campaign. In 1851, Chambers aligned with the widely popular Westminster Review journal that had been established in 1823 by British philosopher and economist Jeremy Bentham and James Mill as the official arm of the Philosophical Radicals. The Westminster Review was a the New Yorker prototype. Continue reading more

Chimp Genetics Radically Different

In a letter to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, his closet friend in 1857, Charles Darwin confided,

I cannot swallow Man [being that] distinct from a Chimpanzee.

Charles Darwin writes in his Autobiography,

My Descent of Man was published in Feb. 1871. As soon as I had become, in the year 1837 or 1838, convinced that species were mutable products, I could not avoid the belief that man must come under the same law

The chimp, since the nineteenth century, has been the poster-child missing link to humans. In twenty-first century terms, the mammalian Y chromosomes were expected to be similar, as speculated by Darwin. However, new evidence demonstrates Darwin’s speculation to be wrong—the chimp Y chromosome differs radically from humans.

The British journal Nature published a paper in January 2010 titled, “Chimpanzee and Human Y Chromosomes are Remarkably Divergent in Structure and Gene Content,” found that Y chromosomes in the chimp and humans “differ radically in sequence structure and gene content”. In fact,

More than 30% of the chimp Y chromosome lacks an alignable counterpart on the human Y chromosome

Jennifer F. Hughes led the research team at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, one of the world’s leading centers for genomic research, is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The research team concluded –

By comparing the MSYs of the two species we show that they differ radically in sequence structure and gene content

“By conducting the first comprehensive interspecies comparison of Y chromosomes,” ScienceDaily noted, “Whitehead Institute researchers have found considerable differences in the genetic sequences of the human and chimpanzee Ys… The results overturned the expectation that the chimp and human Y chromosomes would be highly similar. Instead, they differ remarkably in their structure and gene content.”

The original chimp genome sequencing completed in 2005 largely excluded the Y chromosome because its hundreds of repetitive sections had typically confound standard sequencing techniques. The chimp Y chromosome is only the second Y chromosome to be comprehensively sequenced.

 Wes Warren, Assistant Director of the Washington University Genome Center, noted

These findings demonstrate that our knowledge of the Y chromosome is still advancing.

Earlier comparative studies between the chimp and human genome had centered on DNA regions that only result in the production of proteins. In addition, not only is the chimp DNA 12% larger than human DNA, the Chimp has 23 chromosomes while humans have only 22 (excluding sex chromosomes in both species).

While the researchers advance the concept that “divergence” from the Chimp occurred 6 million years ago, the more logical explanation is that the chimp is simply a distinct species.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

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Darwin, Then and Now is a journey through the most amazing story in the history of science - the history of evolution. The book encapsulates who Darwin was, what he said, and what scientists have discovered since the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859.

With over 1,000 references, Darwin Then and Now is a historical chronicle of the rise and fall of the once popular theory of biological evolution.

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