After spending more than $6 billion on constructing the particle collider in western Europe, known as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to unravel the greatest mysteries in physics, the evidence is seemingly pointing to one astounding fact – “the universe shouldn’t exist.”
Physicists Peter Higgs and François Englert, working on the most expensive experiment in the history of science, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the long sought after Higgs boson or Higgs particle, which is pivotal to the Standard Model of physics, in 2012. While the evidence continues to validate the existence of the particle, ironically the evidence may unravel the Big Bang theory for the origin of the universe.
Two opposing theories of evolution have emerged into a new impasse – “survival of the fittest” versus symbiosis. As Charles Darwin explained in The Origin of Species (1859), evolution results from competition between species. On the opposing side, evolution is thought to result from altruistic cooperation between species−a process of symbiosis.
Darwin proposed that evolution stems from “accumulating slight, successive” changes during the “struggle for life”−a process he called natural selection. Poet Alfred Lord Tennyson, born the same year as Darwin, captured the essence of this struggle for life in the now infamous phrase—“nature red in tooth and claw.”
After years of cross-referencing the works of Charles Darwin (1812-1882) alongside those of Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) to answer the question did Darwin ‘borrow” the theory of natural selection for The Origin of Species, Mike Sutton, a criminology expert at Nottingham Trent University, concluded that “I have no doubt, based on the weight of new evidence, that Darwin did read Matthew’s book and then went on to replicate his discovery and key themes.”
Science correspondent Sarah Knapton in the article, “Did Charles Darwin ‘borrow’ the theory of natural selection?” published by The Telegraph (UK) reporting on Sutton’s findings concludes that “Darwin must not only have been aware of Matthew’s work, but borrowed from it heavily” proving that “the naturalist [Darwin] lied.”
In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin cast his theory of evolution centered on a “struggle for life” principle – coined as the “war of nature” or the “survival of the fittest” in 1859. This principle is presented in the complete title of his legionary book – On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
This competitive “struggle for life,” Darwin had argued, occurs between the new and the original species. With the emergence of new species, they were imagined to compete even against their own parents:
“The principle of competition [is] between organism and organism, between child and parent… supplant[ing] the old and unimproved forms.”
Competition increases with increasing similarity. “As the species of the same genus,” Darwin argued, “the struggle will generally be more severe between them, if they come into competition with each other, than between the species of distinct genera.” Since then, however, the evidence directly challenges Darwin’s principle of evolution. Continue Reading
In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin assertively explains, “We shall, perhaps, best understand how instincts in a state of nature have become modified by selection, by considering… the slave-making instinct of certain ants.” Similar to bees with elbowed antennae, ants are instinctively colony-building social insects.
Without a blueprint or leader, swarming ants can move specks of dirt to create large structures with an integrated network of complex tunnels with circulating ventilation. Scientists studying organization in nature are increasingly turning their interest towards how these insects with tiny brains could have evolved instincts to cooperatively engineer such impressive structures.
In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin envisioned that “extinction and natural selection go hand in hand.” Extinction, however, was relatively new concept only emerging in revolutionary France following the publication of Essay on the Theory of the Earth in 1813 by French naturalist Georges Cuvier.
“All these facts, consistent among themselves,” Cuvier argued, “seem to me to prove the existence of a world previous to ours… And what revolution was able to wipe it out [extinction]?” Cuvier was an iconic French scientist who established extinction as a field of inquiry. When completed in time for the 1889 World’s Fair, his name was one of the only seventy-two names inscribed onto the Eiffel Tower. The discovery of extinction, Elizabeth Kolbert explains in book The Sixth Extinction (2014), made evolution seem “as unlikely as levitation” – an issue Darwin conveniently overlooked.
Oxygen is one of life’s most essential atomic elements. As molecular biologist Michael Denton highlights in his book “Nature’s Destiny, How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe,” oxygen is the key element for “one of the most important chemical reactions on Earth.”
While oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the most abundant chemical element by mass in the Earth’s biosphere, air, sea and land adding one more agonizing Achilles Heel to the theory of evolution.
Over the past two decades, a treasure trove of fossils has been unearthed in China. Some of the world’s most exquisitely preserved feathered dinosaurs, birds, reptiles and mammals have been recovered near quiet the northeastern China village of Daohugou.
Chinese farmers first discovered the trove near this Inner Mongolian village in 1998. The following summer, two distinct salamander species were recovered. Since then, the now infamous fossil site has been named the Daohugou Biota and has yielded more than 30 different vertebrate taxa (groups). The treasure trove of scientific evidence, however, further upends Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.
An international research team led by Christina Warinner of the University of Oklahoma has published ground breaking research performed on ancient dental calculus. The research team involved thirty-two investigators at twelve institutions in seven countries. “Dental calculus,” Warinner explains, “is among the richest biomolecular sources yet identified in the archaeological record.”
Calculus is derived from the Greek word Calcis originally used to describe limestone. Like a fossil locked in rock, biological molecules are captured in dental calculus with “exceptional preservation.” The findings upend the long-used iconic example of observable evolution: the development of antibiotic resistance.
New fossil discovery in China stuns Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution acting through “slight successive changes.” An international team led by geologist Ryosuke Motani from the University of California at Davis published a paper in PLOS journal earlier this month on new evidence that foils previous evolution paradigms.
Bordering on the Yangtze River in the eastern China just north of Chaohu City, Motani’s team discovered by accident what is thought to be the oldest known reptile. While working systematically through a slab of entombed fossils looking for a ray-finned fish known as Saurichthys, the workers accidently fractured the slab.