Extinction, Darwin Wrong Again

Great AukIn The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin envisioned that “extinction and natural selection go hand in hand.” Extinction, however, was relatively new concept only emerging in revolutionary France following the publication of Essay on the Theory of the Earth in 1813 by French naturalist Georges Cuvier.

“All these facts, consistent among themselves,” Cuvier argued, “seem to me to prove the existence of a world previous to ours… And what revolution was able to wipe it out [extinction]?” Cuvier was an iconic French scientist who established extinction as a field of inquiry. When completed in time for the 1889 World’s Fair, his name was one of the only seventy-two names inscribed onto the Eiffel Tower. The discovery of extinction, Elizabeth Kolbert explains in book The Sixth Extinction (2014), made evolution seem “as unlikely as levitation” – an issue Darwin conveniently overlooked.

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Oxygen, Evolution’s Achilles Heel

Earth AtmosphereOxygen is one of life’s most essential atomic elements. As molecular biologist Michael Denton highlights in his book “Nature’s Destiny, How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe,” oxygen is the key element for “one of the most important chemical reactions on Earth.”

While oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the most abundant chemical element by mass in the Earth’s biosphere, air, sea and land adding one more agonizing Achilles Heel to the theory of evolution.

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Fossils, the Colossal Evolution Failure

Daohugou BiotiaOver the past two decades, a treasure trove of fossils has been unearthed in China.  Some of the world’s most exquisitely preserved feathered dinosaurs, birds, reptiles and mammals have been recovered near quiet the northeastern China village of Daohugou.  

Chinese farmers first discovered the trove near this Inner Mongolian village in 1998. The following summer, two distinct salamander species were recovered. Since then, the now infamous fossil site has been named the Daohugou Biota and has yielded more than 30 different vertebrate taxa (groups). The treasure trove of scientific evidence, however, further upends Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

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Ancient Calculus Upends Evolution Icon

Ancient Dental CalculusAn international research team led by Christina Warinner of the University of Oklahoma has published ground breaking research performed on ancient dental calculus. The research team involved thirty-two investigators at twelve institutions in seven countries. “Dental calculus,” Warinner explains, “is among the richest biomolecular sources yet identified in the archaeological record.”

Calculus is derived from the Greek word Calcis originally used to describe limestone. Like a fossil locked in rock, biological molecules are captured in dental calculus with “exceptional preservation.” The findings upend the long-used iconic example of observable evolution: the development of antibiotic resistance.

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New Reptile Fossil Stuns Evolution Paradigm

Reptile Live BirthNew fossil discovery in China stuns Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution acting through “slight successive changes.” An international team led by geologist Ryosuke Motani from the University of California at Davis published a paper in PLOS journal earlier this month on new evidence that foils previous evolution paradigms.

Bordering on the Yangtze River in the eastern China just north of Chaohu City, Motani’s team discovered by accident what is thought to be the oldest known reptile. While working systematically through a slab of entombed fossils looking for a ray-finned fish known as Saurichthys, the workers accidently fractured the slab.  

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Darwin Day, the Ultimate Science Paradox

Darwin Day Paradox IIA “Darwin Day” resolution by Democratic New Jersey U.S. Representative Rush Holt was re-introduced on the house floor in late January. The proposed legislation attempts to again designate Charles Darwin’s birthday, February 12th as a day for the nation to honor Darwin. In a Huffington Post interview, Holt explained that Darwin’s birthday should symbolize “the importance of science in the betterment of humanity.”

“It was his thirst for knowledge,” Holt elaborated, “and his scientific approach to discovering new truths that enabled him to develop the theory of evolution.” Science historians, however, will undoubtedly challenge Holt’s “science” assertion and Holtz’s “betterment of humanity” assertion.

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Genetics, an Evolution Nightmare

Gene duplication has recently emeDNA Blackboardrged as one of the most popular proposed driving mechanisms of evolution. “I think it’s a missing piece of human evolution,” said Evan Eichler, a geneticist at the University of Washington, in Seattle in an interview with Emily Singer and published the January 6 edition of Scientific America. “My feeling is that these duplication blocks have been the substrate for the birth of new genes.”

“Gene duplication is one of the major drivers of the evolution of gene and protein networks,” according to Christopher Baker in the Science article entitled “Following Gene Duplication.”

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Ancient DNA Thousands, Not Millions, of Years Old

Jurassic ParkThe survival and stability of DNA over time is of critical importance in genetics, forensic and reproductive medicine, and in the study of ancient DNA in fossils. The structural integrity of the DNA molecule, contrary to the Jurassic Park tale, is not infinitely stable. Damage to the DNA molecule in living organisms occurs naturally from normal metabolic and hydrolytic processes and from environmental factors such as ultraviolet light and radiation.

Damage to DNA in mammalian cells is known to occur 1 million times daily.  While alive organisms can identify and correct these damages, the evolution industry has been reticent to address the stability of ancient DNA in the fossil record – perhaps strictly for philosophical reasons.

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Genetics Undermines Human Evolution, Again

Atapuerca Mountain CaveAn international team of geneticists headed by Matthias Meyer of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany reported earlier in the December journal Nature on the DNA isolated from 28 hominins estimated to be 400,000 years of age. These fossils had been excavated in the 1970’s from the ninety-foot cold and damp underground Sima de los Huesos, Pit of Bones, cave located in the Atapuerca Mountains of northern Spain.

While the shape and size of the fossil bones look-like the Neanderthals, genetically they were more closely related to yet another ancient human species, the Denisovans. In an interview with TIME science writer Per Liljas, Meyer complained, “The fact that they show a mitochondrial genome sequence similar to that of Denisovans is irritating. Our results suggest that the evolutionary history of Neanderthals and Denisovans may be very complicated.”

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The Shrouding of Origin of Life Research

Moses IILeading origin of life researchers will assemble next month in Galveston, Texas for the “Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth and the Galaxy” conference hosted by Gordon Research Conferences (GRC), a non-profit organization started in 1931.

GRC provides a forum for scientists to discuss “frontier research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences, and their related technologies.” However, in an affront to transparency, access to the conference is restricted. Only those sent an invitation can register for this event−not even the press. The conference rules are defined by non-citability. Whatever is said at the conference must stay at the conference with attendees agreeing not to quote what anyone said−the shrouding of origin of life research.
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Darwin, Then and Now is a journey through the most amazing story in the history of science - the history of evolution; encapsulating who Darwin was, what he said, and what scientists have discovered since the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859.

With over 1,000 references, Darwin’s life, climaxing with the search for a natural law of evolution, is investigated in the context of the scientific evidence since discovered in the fossil record, embryology, molecular biology and genetics. Darwin The and Now is a historical chronicle of the rise and fall of biological evolution.